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GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY

Geologically the district contains almost all geological formations except Deccan Trap. The distribution of geological formation can be described in the following table.

Information on Distribution of Geological formation

Scale Group Formation Location Area
Recent Recent (G)Alluvium

(F)Laterite

Restricted along rivers and nalas banks. Dhanora, Kurkheda and Northern Etapalli 42416 Ha.
Gondwana   (E) Upper Sand stone, clays

(D) Lower Kamthi Ferruginious Sandstone and clays

Sironcha 43969 Ha.
Pre-Cambrian   (C) Vindhyan Sandstone, Limestone, Conglomerates (B) Cuddapaha Shales Aheri

Sironcha

162877 Ha.
Archeans   Oldest crystalline and metamorphic ie Igneous and schist with quartzite and banded Hematite and quartzite, granite All talukas of Gadchiroli District except Sironcha 1278286 Ha.

The major lineaments trends are NW-SE, NE-SW and NS. The NW-SE linaments are more common and can be correlated to the trend of the Godavari. The longer lineaments are considered to be deep seated fractures in the crust.

A shear zone encompassing two parallel sets of lineaments has been marked trending NW-SE near Chamorshi town. Copper Mineralisation is associated with this shear zone.

Iron ore, base metals, barrettes, limestone, corundum, talc are some of the important economic minerals occurring in the district. The district can be divided into six geomorphic units of structural, denudational and fluvial origin.

Structural Origin : Structural Hill/ Ridges

Lithologically these consist of metamorphic rocks of Archaean and Proterozoic age.

Denudational Origin : Denudational Hills, Pediments / Pediplains

Denudational hills are low relief hills mostly covered with vegetation. While Pediments are concave surfaces developed at Junction of hills with the plains and exhibit undulating topography and are dissected.

Fluvial Origin : Older and Younger Alluvial Plains

The Wainganga and Godawari have developed extensive alluvial deposits along their courses. The older alluvial plain is a flat surface of large aerial extent gently sloping towards these rivers and representing an earlier cycle of deposition. The unconsolidated material in this unit consists of sand silt and kankar with thickness as high as 30 m. The younger alluvial unit represents a later cycle of deposition.

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